Research paper method

Therefore, it requires a clear and precise description of how an experiment research paper method done, and the rationale for why specific experimental procedures were chosen.

The methods section should describe what was done to answer the research question, describe how it was done, justify the experimental design, and explain how the results were analyzed. For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic. Material in each section should be organized by topic from most to least important. In the physical sciences objects are regarded as variables, and a variable is anything that can assume different values. An independent variable is one that, when manipulated, causes a change in another variable. The variable that changes in response to that manipulation is referred to as a dependent variable. For example, intraocular pressure is a dependent variable that responds to manipulations in independent variables such as blood pressure and pupil size.

A confounding or extraneous variable is anything other than the independent variable of interest that may affect the dependent variable. Therefore, a change in a dependent variable may be due wholly or in part to a change in a confounding variable. Validity refers to the credibility of experimental results and the degree to which the results can be applied to the general population of interest. Internal validity refers to the credibility of a study and is determined by the degree to which conclusions drawn from an experiment correctly describe what actually transpired during the study. 2 distinct areas that must be addressed. The complexity of scientific inquiry necessitates that the writing of the methods be clear and orderly to avoid confusion and ambiguity.

In general, the description of preparations, measurements, and the protocol should be organized chronologically. For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in subsections according to topic. Within each section and subsection, material should always research paper method organized by topic from most to least important. Preparations In studies involving animal models or mechanical models, a detailed description must be provided regarding the preparations made prior to beginning the experimental protocol. In studies involving animals a detailed description should be provided on the use of sedation and anesthesia, the route of administration, and how its efficacy was evaluated. Protocol Design The research protocol is the sequence of manipulations and measurement procedures that make up the experiment. Its description should follow the exact sequence of how the procedures were executed.

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It is also important to describe all relevant aspects of clinical management not controlled by the protocol in the peri-experimental period. Measurements and Calculations The next step in the methods section is to describe what variables were measured and how those measurements were made. The description of measurement instruments should include the manufacturer and model, calibration procedures, and how measurements were made. It also may be necessary to justify why and how certain variables were measured.

Hulley SB, Newman TB, Cummings SR. The anatomy and physiology of research. Essentials of writing biomedical research papers. Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research.

A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner. This doesn’t necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work. Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors.

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