How to write a summary on an article
Copy-on-write finds its main use in sharing the virtual memory of operating system processes, in the implementation of how to write a summary on an article fork system call.
Copy-on-write can be implemented efficiently using the page how to write a summary on an article by marking certain pages of memory as read-only and keeping a count of the number of references to the page. The copy-on-write technique can be extended to support efficient memory allocation by having a page of physical memory filled with zeros. When the memory is allocated, all the pages returned refer to the page of zeros and are all marked copy-on-write.
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Copy-on-write pages are also used in the Linux kernel’s kernel same-page merging feature. You can help by adding to it. CoW is also used in library, application and system code. In multithreaded systems, COW can be implemented without the use of traditional locking and instead use compare-and-swap to increment or decrement the internal reference counter. In the PHP programming language, all types except references are implemented as copy-on-write.
For example, strings and arrays are passed by reference, but when modified, they are duplicated if they have non-zero reference counts. This allows them to act as value types without the performance problems of copying on assignment or making them immutable. Qt uses atomic compare-and-swap operations to increment or decrement the internal reference counter. The original storage is never modified.
When a write request is made, it is redirected away from the original data into a new storage area. When a write request is made, the data are copied into a new storage area, and then the original data are modified. Despite their names, copy-on-write usually refers to the first technique. The copy-on-write technique can be used to emulate a read-write storage on media that require wear leveling or are physically write once read many.
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