Metamemory, defined as knowing about memory and mnemonic strategies, is an especially important form higher thinking metacognition.
Some evolutionary psychologists hypothesize that humans use metacognition as a survival tool. This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John H. The term metacognition literally means ‘beyond cognition’, and is used to indicate cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking. Flavell defined metacognition as knowledge about cognition and control of cognition. For example, a person is engaging in metacognition if he notices that he is having more trouble learning A than B, or if it strikes him that he should double-check C before accepting it as fact.
Metacognition also involves thinking about one’s own thinking process such as study skills, memory capabilities, and the ability to monitor learning. This concept needs to be explicitly taught along with content instruction. Metacognitive knowledge is about one’s own cognitive processes and the understanding of how to regulate those processes to maximize learning. It is notable that not all metacognition is accurate. Studies have shown that students often mistake lack of effort with understanding in evaluating themselves and their overall knowledge of a concept. The study mentioned in Content knowledge also deals with a person’s ability to evaluate the difficulty of a task related to their overall performance on the task. Metacognition is studied in the domain of artificial intelligence and modelling.
Therefore, it is the domain of interest of emergent systemics. It has been used, albeit thinking the original definition, to describe one’s own knowledge that we will die. Writers in the 1990s involved with the grunge music scene often used the term to describe self-awareness of mortality. Metacognitive regulation is the regulation of cognition and learning experiences through a set of activities that help people control their learning. Metacognitive experiences are those experiences that have something to do with the current, on-going cognitive endeavor. Metacognition refers to a level of thinking that involves active control over the process of thinking that is used in learning situations. Planning the way to approach a higher task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating the progress towards the completion of a task: these are skills that are metacognitive in their nature.
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Declarative knowledge: refers to knowledge about oneself as a learner and about what factors can influence one’s performance. Declarative knowledge can also be referred to as «world knowledge». Procedural knowledge: refers to knowledge about doing things. This type of knowledge is displayed as heuristics and strategies. A high degree of procedural knowledge can allow individuals to perform tasks more automatically. This is achieved through a large variety of strategies that can be accessed more efficiently.
Conditional knowledge: refers to knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge. It allows students to allocate their resources when using strategies. This in turn allows the strategies to become more effective. Similar to metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive regulation or «regulation of cognition» contains three skills that are essential. Planning: refers to the appropriate selection of strategies and the correct allocation of resources that affect task performance.
Evaluating: refers to appraising the final product of a task and the efficiency at which the task was performed. This can include re-evaluating strategies that were used. Similarly, maintaining motivation to see a task to completion is also a metacognitive skill. The theory that metacognition has a critical role to play in successful learning means it is important that it be demonstrated by both students and teachers. Students who demonstrate a wide range of metacognitive skills perform better on exams and complete work more efficiently.
They are self-regulated learners who utilize the «right tool for the job» and modify learning strategies and skills based on their awareness of effectiveness. The fundamental cause of the trouble is that in the modern world the stupid are cocksure while the intelligent are full of doubt. Metacognologists are aware of their own strengths and weaknesses, the nature of the task at hand, and available «tools» or skills. A broader repertoire of «tools» also assists in goal attainment. When «tools» are general, generic, and context independent, they are more likely to be useful in different types of learning situations. Another distinction in metacognition is executive management and strategic knowledge.
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