Case study evidence
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This article needs additional citations for verification. The balance scales seen in depictions of Lady Justice can be seen as representing the weighing of evidence in a legal proceeding. Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion. This support may be strong or weak. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion.
In law, rules of evidence govern the types of evidence that are admissible in a legal proceeding. In philosophy, the study of evidence is closely tied to epistemology, which considers the nature of knowledge and how it can be acquired. The burden of proof is the obligation of a party in an argument or dispute to provide sufficient evidence to shift the other party’s or a third party’s belief from their initial position. The burden of proof must be fulfilled by both establishing confirming evidence and negating oppositional evidence. Conclusions drawn from evidence may be subject to criticism based on a perceived failure to fulfill the burden of proof. On whom does the burden of proof rest? To what degree of certitude must the assertion be supported?
The latter question depends on the nature of the point under contention and determines the quantity and quality of evidence required to meet the burden of proof. In a criminal trial in the United States, for example, the prosecution carries the burden of proof since the defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In a philosophical debate, there is an implicit burden of proof on the party asserting a claim, since the default position is generally one of neutrality or unbelief. Each party in a debate will therefore carry the burden of proof for any assertion they make in the argument, although some assertions may be granted by the other party without further evidence. In scientific research evidence is accumulated through observations of phenomena that occur in the natural world, or which are created as experiments in a laboratory or other controlled conditions.
Scientific evidence usually goes towards supporting or rejecting a hypothesis. The burden of proof is on the person making a contentious claim. Within science, this translates to the burden resting on presenters of a paper, in which the presenters argue for their specific findings. This paper is placed before a panel of judges where the presenter must defend the thesis against all challenges. Evidence forms the very foundation of a legal system, without which law would be subject to the whims of those with power. In law, the production and presentation of evidence depends first on establishing on whom the burden of proof lies. Admissible evidence is that which a court receives and considers for the purposes of deciding a particular case.
Two primary burden-of-proof considerations exist in law. The first is on whom the burden rests. In criminal investigation, rather than attempting to prove an abstract or hypothetical point, the evidence gatherers attempt to determine who is responsible for a criminal act. The focus of criminal evidence is to connect physical evidence and reports of case study evidence to a specific person.
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The path that physical evidence takes from the scene of a crime or the arrest of a suspect to the courtroom is called the chain of custody. In a criminal case, this path must be clearly documented or attested to by those who handled the evidence. Presenting evidence before the court differs from the gathering of evidence in important ways. Failure to follow these rules leads to any number of consequences. American College of Forensic Examiners Institute. The Certified Criminal Investigator Body of Knowledge.
Look up evidence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Evidence. Please forward this error screen to sharedip-192186192131. An official website of the United States government.
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