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Colors can appear different depending on their surrounding colors and shapes. The two small squares have exactly the same color, but the right one looks slightly darker, the Chubb illusion. The photo-receptivity of the «eyes» of other species also varies considerably from that of humans and so results in correspondingly different color perceptions that cannot readily be compared to one another. The science of color is sometimes called chromatics, colorimetry, or simply color science. Continuous optical spectrum rendered into the sRGB color space. Although the spectrum of light arriving at the eye from a given direction determines the color sensation in that direction, there are many more possible spectral combinations than color sensations. The color of an object depends on both the physics of the object in its environment and the characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain.

Physically, objects can be said to have the color of the light leaving their surfaces, which normally depends on the spectrum of the incident illumination and science article properties of the surface, as of as potentially on the angles of illumination and viewing. If objects scatter all wavelengths with roughly equal strength, they appear white. If they absorb all wavelengths, they appear black. Opaque objects that specularly reflect light of different wavelengths with different efficiencies look like mirrors tinted with colors determined by those differences.

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Objects may emit light that they generate from having excited electrons, rather than merely reflecting or transmitting light. To summarize, the color of an object is a complex result of its surface properties, its transmission properties, and its emission properties, all of which contribute to the mix of wavelengths in the light leaving the surface of the object. The perceived color is then further conditioned by the nature of the ambient illumination, and by the color properties of other objects nearby, and via other characteristics of the perceiving eye and brain. When viewed in full size, this image contains about 16 million pixels, each corresponding to a different color on the full set of RGB colors. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million different colors.

Although Aristotle and other ancient scientists had already written on the nature of light and color vision, it was not until Newton that light was identified as the source of the color sensation. In 1801 Thomas Young proposed his trichromatic theory, based on the observation that any color could be matched with a combination of three lights. This theory was later refined by James Clerk Maxwell and Hermann von Helmholtz. The ability of the human eye to distinguish colors is based upon the varying sensitivity of different cells in the retina to light of different wavelengths. Light, no matter how complex its composition of wavelengths, is reduced to three color components by the eye.

Each cone type adheres to the principle of univariance, which is that each cone’s output is determined by the amount of light that falls on it over all wavelengths. For each location in the visual field, the three types of cones yield three signals based on the extent to which each is stimulated. The response curve as a function of wavelength varies for each type of cone. Because the curves overlap, some tristimulus values do not occur for any incoming light combination. The set of all possible tristimulus values determines the human color space. The other type of light-sensitive cell in the eye, the rod, has a different response curve.

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